İNGİLİZCE YDS / YÖKDİL DENEME SINAVI – 2
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İNGİLİZCE YDS / YÖKDİL DENEME SINAVI – 2
1. – 16. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
1. UNICEF is deeply committed to creating a world in which all children, regardless of their gender or socioeconomic background, have _______ to free, compulsory and quality education.
2. In some countries, such as Brazil and Russia, codes have been put in place to promote _______ logging of forest ecosystems.
3. Before they are allowed to be used, all medicines, including vaccines, are _______ tested to assess how safe and effective they are.
4. Many scientists believe that our sanitized surroundings are _______ allergic disorders in children, which have doubled in the last decade.
5. In non-literate societies, valuable information about the past is often enshrined in oral tradition – poems, hymns or sayings _______ from generation to generation by word of mouth.
A) taken off
B) handed down
C) thrown up
D) kept off
E) rooted out
6. By mapping equatorial rainfall since 800 AD, scientists have _______ how tropical weather may change over the next century.
A) taken out
B) put aside
C) brought down
D) figured out
E) counted upon
7. The physics of elementary particles in the 20th century _______ by the observation of particles whose existence _______ by theorists decades earlier.
A) has been distinguished / was predicted
B) distinguished / is being predicted
C) was distinguished / had been predicted
D) is distinguished / has been predicted
E) had been distinguished / was being predicted
8. At the end of the First World War, the leaders of victorious countries gathered at Versailles, and there, they _______ to decide what penalties Germany, Austria and other allies _______.
A) tried / would have to pay
B) had tried / must have paid
C) were trying / were paying
D) used to try / might have paid
E) could try / should have paid
9. _______ the types of individuals it seeks to attract, an organization _______ to consider what methods to use to reach them.
A) To have established / could need
B) Having established / needs
C) Establishing / had needed
D) Established / needed
E) Being established / will need
10. China’s rapid growth _______ trade is seen as a plus for the Southeast Asian nations because it helps to spur development _______ the region.
A) of / without
B) by / about
C) upon / over
D) at / under
E) in / across
11. As Antarctic glaciers collapse _______ the sea, scientists struggle to find out what that means _______ the rise of sea levels.
A) against / in
B) over / to
C) around / along
D) on / for
E) from / behind
12. _______ lead was widely known to be dangerous, by the early years of the 20th century, it could be found in all manners of consumer products.
C) Only when
D) Even though
E) Given that
13. Animals trapped in a stone called ‘amber’ are sometimes so well preserved that they look _______ they have just died.
A) so that
B) in case
C) as though
D) even if
E) now that
14. The European Commission has put forward that policies to cut greenhouse gases will not work _______ individuals share the vision of a low-carbon society.
A) provided that
15. When modern coastal fish-farming began 30 years ago, no one was doing things right, _______ for the environment _______ the industry’s long-term sustainability.
A) whether / or
B) such / as
C) so / that
D) either / or
E) as / as
16. _______ deriving two-thirds of its power supply from fossil fuels, power producers in India cannot get enough pipeline space to distribute natural gas.
C) As a result of
D) By means of
E) Rather than
17. – 21. Sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
Cities, large and small, are at the heart of a fast changing global economy – they are a cause of, and a response to world economic growth. Many urban areas are growing (17)—- their rural hinterlands are depressed, which forces impoverished rural people to move to the cities in search of work. These newcomers often end up not (18)—- the opportunities they are looking for, so they become part of the urban poor. (19)—- arrival to the city, they often encounter lack of housing and infrastructure services. To (20)—- the lack of available homes, newcomers often set up shelters on the city outskirts, usually on public-owned land. They often live without electricity, running water, a sewerage system, roads and other urban services. (21)—- dealing with poor sanitation and pollution from dirty cooking fuels and primitive stoves, they are exposed to modern environmental hazards, such as urban air pollution, exhaust fumes and industrial pollution.
B) in case
C) so that
A) to find
C) to have found
D) being found
E) to be found
A) cut down on
B) go in for
C) turn back on
D) fall behind with
E) make up for
B) Owing to
C) For the sake of
D) In addition to
22. – 26. Sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
No single country owns Antarctica. (22)—-, countries wishing to have a say in how the Antarctic (both the continent itself and the surrounding Southern Ocean) is governed (23)—-, and agree to abide by, the Antarctic Treaty. However, prior to the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, several countries had made claims to parts of Antarctica, some of which overlapped. The Treaty does not (24)—- these claims; Article IV of the Treaty states in part, “No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.” (25)—- avoiding the claims issue in this way, it was possible to produce a treaty that many parties could sign. Unfortunately, this means that (26)—- many countries follow the spirit of cooperation of the Treaty, there are still disputes over territory that remain unresolved and come up from time to time.
B) For example
C) At least
D) In short
A) were to sign
B) had to sign
C) must sign
D) may sign
E) used to sign
27. – 36. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
27. In order to make the first vessels to cross stretches of water, _______ .
A) ancient civilizations depended heavily on these for their survival and expansion
B) the Greeks brought the art of rowing to a level of perfection that has never been surpassed
C) early attempts were often unique to the societies that originated them
D) people had already developed them for such purposes as fishing and transporting goods
E) early humans employed materials ranging from animal skins to small pieces of timber
28. While several other minerals are needed for muscle function, _______ .
A) knowledge of your body and its functions can be a great ally in health matters
B) most of the calories in the food we eat are used by our muscles
C) the contours of the body alter as the muscles strengthen
D) exercise is a vital ingredient for keeping the human body in good health
E) continuous intake of calcium helps to maintain a healthy skeleton
29. Despite the political upheavals in the Arab world, _______ .
A) the Middle East is gaining ground to become one of the world’s popular tourist destinations
B) business boom, in places like Dubai and Abu Dhabi, has had little impact on the economies
C) the airlines are rapidly expanding their routes in Europe and Asia
D) emphasis on new policies is required to overcome recession in these countries
E) stability, strong economic growth and value for money are the key factors of economic mobility
30. Whereas there are undoubted social benefits to increasing home ownership, _______ .
A) the mortgage companies that finance home buyers can go bankrupt
B) there are some economic problems associated with it
C) more and more people prefer to buy homes than rent
D) the existing laws make it financially more attractive to purchase
E) incentives to rent houses still remain at historically low levels
31. No matter how good the food we eat is, if it is not well digested, absorbed into the blood and assimilated into the cells,_______ .
A) we can, in time, develop symptoms and nutritional deficiency
B) food must be well chewed and mixed with saliva
C) an alkaline environment is needed for the next stage of digestion
D) it reaches the stomach where it is mixed with pepsin
E) the breakdown of the protein in food begins here
32. _______ , Indian culture was primarily oral, with a high value placed on recounting tales and dreams.
A) No matter how extraordinarily diverse Indian customs and culture have been
B) As native American Indians evolved into complex hierarchical societies that practiced human sacrifice
C) Even though the first Indians began constructing earthen burial sites and fortifications around 600 BC
D) If all European emigrants had left their homelands to escape political oppression
E) Although some North American tribes developed a type of hieroglyphics to preserve certain texts
33. _______ , you can work on extinguishing any undesirable behaviours.
A) Unless you proceed to the interviewer’s office for your interview
B) Although previous work experience is sought by almost all employers nowadays
C) Once you are able to see yourself interacting with others
D) Whereas there is much to be learned about human nature in general
E) Just as any communicative event requires at least one person to be around
34. It might not be practical to use a different password for every single website that you log into _______ .
A) so online shopping involves more than just a seller and a buyer
B) although it is more suggestible for someone to rely on a computer engineer
C) since nicknames on the Internet are not enough to protect you from harm
D) while the term ‘surfing’ has become more widespread as more people use computers
E) but it is definitely worth having more than one for security reasons
35. The nests birds leave behind provide clues about their lives and environment _______ .
A) as the architectural complexity of these nests hardly untangles their genealogy
B) just as archaeological sites supply glimpses of human history
C) but nest-collecting was a popular boyhood hobby in the 19th century
D) despite the fact that they remain a largely untapped scientific resource
E) before they lay eggs in order to sustain the continuation of their species
36. _______ , not only cell operators but also law enforcement have come under fire for exploiting personal data without the user’s knowledge.
A) After the companies have agreed widely on privacy policies
B) Although law enforcement units permit users to reach all sites
C) Since market demand is driving some of the biggest collectors of data into piracy
D) As smart phones’ tracking abilities have become more sophisticated
E) Now that banking transactions via mobile devices are almost completely secure
37. – 42. sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümleye anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi, Türkçe cümleye anlamca yakın İngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
37. Most of the fears that we had when we were children are actually quite profound, but as we grow older and become more self-sufficient, the reality of fears diminishes.
A) Çocukken yaşadığımız korkuların çoğu, aslında oldukça derindir ancak büyüyüp kendimize daha fazla yeter hâle geldikçe korkuların gerçekliği azalır.
B) Çocukken aslında çok derin birçok korku yaşarız fakat büyüyüp daha çok kendimize yettikçe bu korkular gerçekliğini yitirir.
C) Çocukken yaşadığımız korkuların çoğu, aslında oldukça derin boyuttadır ancak büyüyüp kendimize daha fazla yeten bireyler hâline geldiğimizde bu korkular zamanla ortadan kalkar.
D) Çocukken yaşanılan korkuların çoğu, aslında oldukça derindir fakat kendimize yetecek kadar büyüdüğümüzde bu korkular gerçekliğini kaybeder.
E) Çocukken yaşadığımız korkuların çoğu, aslında oldukça derin olsa da büyüyüp kendimize daha fazla yettikçe bu korkular gerçek olmaktan uzaklaşır.
38. For the last 20 years, there has been an ongoing argument as to whether jazz is no longer an exclusively American let alone an Afro-American music.
A) Son yirmi yıldır, Afro-Amerikan müziği olmaktan çıktığı varsayılan cazın sadece Amerikan müziği olup olmadığını sorgulayan bir tartışma bulunmaktadır.
B) Son yirmi yılın süregelen tartışması, Afro-Amerikan müziği olmasından ziyade, cazın artık tamamıyla Amerikan müziği olup olmadığıdır.
C) Son yirmi yıldır, cazın Afro-Amerikan müziği olmasını göz ardı eden ve tamamen Amerikan müziği olduğunu savunan bir tartışma süregelmektedir.
D) Son yirmi yıldır, Afro-Amerikan müziği olmasını bırakın, cazın daha ne kadar Amerikan müziği olarak anılabileceği tartışılmaktadır.
E) Son yirmi yıldır, Afro-Amerikan müziği olmasını bir kenara bırakın, cazın artık yalnızca Amerikan müziği olup olmadığı konusunda süregelen bir tartışma mevcuttur.
39. Patriarchy originally meant superiority of the father and used to be employed by sociologists to describe family structures where the father rather than the mother was dominant.
A) Ataerkillik, esasen babanın ayrıcalığını ifade etmekteydi ve toplum bilimciler tarafından anneden ziyade babanın baskın olduğu aile yapılarını tanımlarken kullanılırdı.
B) Ataerkillik, özünde babanın hâkimiyeti anlamını taşımaktaydı ve toplum bilimciler tarafından anneden ziyade babanın baskın olduğu aile yapılarını ele alırken kullanılırdı.
C) Ataerkillik, ilk olarak babanın üstünlüğü anlamına sahipti ve toplum bilimciler tarafından anneden ziyade babanın ön planda olduğu aile yapılarını tasvir etmek için kullanılırdı.
D) Ataerkillik, başlangıçta babanın üstünlüğü anlamına gelmekteydi ve toplum bilimciler tarafından anneden ziyade babanın baskın olduğu aile yapılarını tanımlamak için kullanılırdı.
E) Ataerkillik, aslen babanın üstünlüğü anlamına gelmekteydi ve toplum bilimciler tarafından anneden ziyade babanın sözünün geçtiği aile yapılarını vurgulamak için kullanılırdı.
40. Oyunlara ve özellikle çocuk oyunlarına ilişkin inançlarımız, teknoloji ve küreselleşme ile köklü değişimler geçirmiştir.
A) We seem to have radically changed our beliefs about plays, and children’s plays in particular, because of advances in technology and globalization.
B) We believe that plays, and children’s plays in particular, have encountered radical changes due to technology and globalization.
C) Our beliefs about plays, and children’s plays in particular, have undergone radical changes with technology and globalization.
D) Owing to the radical changes in plays, and children’s plays in particular, we have shifted our attitude towards technology and globalization.
E) As to technology and globalization, our beliefs about plays, and children’s plays in particular, have changed radically.
41. Anadolu’daki arkeolojik kalıntılar, zeytin ağacının çok eskilere dayandığını ve aynı zamanda zeytinyağının faydalarını insanların bildiğini gösteren deliller sunmaktadır.
A) Archaeological remains in Anatolia have revealed the fact that the olive tree grew in the very distant past and humans knew the benefits of olive oil as well.
B) In Anatolia, archaeological remains show that the olive tree was in existence in the very distant past and humans were also aware of the benefits of olive oil.
C) Archaeological remains in Anatolia provide proof that the olive tree dates back to the very distant past, as does human knowledge of olive oil’s benefits.
D) The olive tree and human knowledge of olive oil’s benefits date back to the very distant past as archaeological remains in Anatolia show us.
E) Remains in archaeological sites in Anatolia proves that olive tree depends on the very distant past and humans benefited from olive oil in many ways.
42. Kendine ait önemli rezervleri bulunmayan dünyanın en büyük enerji tüketicisi Avrupa Birliği, ihtiyaç duyduğu enerjinin % 50’sini ithal etmektedir ve ithal enerjiye olan bağımlılığının 2030 yılına kadar % 70’e çıkacağı tahmin edilmektedir.
A) The world’s largest energy consumer without its own significant reserves, the European Union imports 50% of the energy it needs, and it is predicted that its dependence on imported energy will rise to 70% by 2030.
B) As the world’s largest energy consumer, the European Union has no important energy reserves, and it is envisioned that its dependence on imported energy will increase to 70% by 2030, on the assumption that it buys 50% of its energy from other countries.
C) As the world’s largest energy consumer with its limited energy reserves, the European Union imports around 50% of the energy it needs, and it will probably be more dependent on energy import with a 70% increase by 2030.
D) Besides being the world’s largest energy consumer today which lacks its own reserves, the European Union imports 50% of the energy it requires, and it is foreseen that its energy import will go up to 70% by 2030.
E) The European Union is the world’s largest energy consumer without its own significant energy reserves, and it is estimated that its reliance on imported energy will rise to 70% by 2030, while it is 50% now.
43. – 46. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
History is one of the few school subjects commonly mandated in education systems throughout the world. Furthermore, the use of history textbooks to support student learning is an almost universally accepted practice. However, the widespread international presence of the humble history textbook should not disguise its ideological and cultural potency. Indeed, essential to understanding the power and importance of history textbooks is to appreciate that in any given culture they typically exist as the keepers of ideas, values and knowledge. No matter how neutral history textbooks may appear, they are ideologically important, because they often seek to inject the youth with a shared set of values, national ethos and an incontrovertible sense of political orthodoxy. Textbooks stand as cultural artefacts that embody a range of issues associated with ideology, politics and values which in themselves function at a variety of different levels of power, status and influence. Embedded in history textbooks are narratives and stories that nation states choose to tell about themselves and their relations with other nations. Typically, they represent a core of cultural knowledge which future generations are expected both to assimilate and support.
43. According to the passage, history textbooks _______ .
A) are now being rewritten with a more international and universal outlook to rectify past misunderstandings between nations
B) are not appropriate for teaching history because they are always ideologically biased
C) should be written in a neutral and unbiased way so that future generations can have a healthy understanding of history
D) not only have educational, but also ideological functions, serving to transmit a nation state’s values
E) consist of baseless stories and narratives rather than historical facts that are more important for a nation state’s survival
44. It is stated in the passage that _______ .
A) some countries have been more successful in producing more neutral and less ideological history textbooks than others
B) in many nations, debates over the content and format of history textbooks continue to generate considerable political conflict
C) nations attempt to provide future generations with particular values that will ensure the continuation of existing structures
D) history textbooks have become more politicized after the emergence of nation states to preserve national identity
E) many educational systems throughout the world include history in their curriculum to enhance political literacy
45. According to the passage, regardless of how impartially they are written, history textbooks _______ .
A) need to teach both the past and the future
B) serve a purpose other than intended
C) are the best options for cultural transmission
D) affect ideologically the youth more than adults
E) can never be completely objective and neutral
46. It can be inferred from the passage that the author _______ .
A) is in favour of using history textbooks to inform people about international relations
B) sets out to emphasize the use of history textbooks to instil national values in the young generation
C) is of the opinion that textbooks on history are easy to write
D) believes in the necessity of locally produced history textbooks to bring about world peace
E) is trying to persuade the reader of the importance of understanding history
47. – 50. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
Farmers in many countries utilize antibiotics in two key ways: at full strength to treat animals that are sick and in low doses to fatten meat-producing livestock or to prevent veterinary illnesses. Although even the proper use of antibiotics can inadvertently lead to the spread of drug resistant bacteria, the habit of using a low dose is a formula for disaster: the treatment provides just enough antibiotic to kill some but not all bacteria. The germs that survive are typically those that happen to bear genetic mutations for resisting the antibiotic. They then reproduce and exchange genes with other microbial resisters. As bacteria are found literally everywhere, resistant strains produced in animals eventually find their way into people as well. You could not design a better system for guaranteeing the spread of antibiotic resistance. To cease the spread, Denmark enforced tighter rules on the use of antibiotics in the raising of poultry and other farm animals. The lesson is that improving animal husbandry – making sure that pens, stalls and cages are properly cleaned and giving animals more room or time to mature – offsets the initial negative impact of limiting antibiotic use.
47. It is understood from the passage that _______ .
A) farmers mainly prefer using antibiotics as a preventive measure for diseases
B) antibiotics are merely useful in treating the contagious diseases of farm animals
C) continuous and heavy doses of antibiotics are crucial for poultry
D) antibiotics are so far the only effective method to fatten up meat-producing animals
E) poultry prices are affected by the spread of contagious diseases
48. It is implied in the passage that _______ .
A) widespread use of antibiotics is intended to eliminate the chances of a possible pandemic
B) using a low dose antibiotic compared to a heavy dose is highly recommended for farmers
C) human beings should test the efficacy of using antibiotics on other animals before using them on poultry
D) increased antibiotic resistance in human beings is due to the consumption of animal products with antibiotic content
E) antibiotic resistance in poultry animals has led scientists to find alternative solutions to fight off these bacteria
49. According to the passage, _______ .
A) the spread of bacterial infections in poultry may not be avoided by improving physical conditions
B) the weight of the poultry mainly depends upon the environment they are brought up in
C) strict regulations in Denmark are employed to minimize the effects of antibiotic use on both poultry and people
D) the maturation period of poultry in Denmark is determined by the size of the animal
E) the productivity of poultry can best be analyzed through the amount of the antibiotic used on the animal
50. It is stated in the passage that antibiotics _______ .
A) are crucial as they change the genetic mutations of poultry
B) form the basis for microbial resistance of genes in animals
C) are effective in restricting resistant strains of bacteria in poultry
D) are employed to prevent a possible disease spread from farm animals to human beings
E) may produce drug resistant bacteria, irrespective of how carefully they are used
51. – 54. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
“The Marshall Plan was not a simple program for transferring massive sums of money to struggling countries, but an explicit – and eventually successful – attempt to reindustrialize Europe.” say Erik Reinert and Ha-Joon Chang. It follows that if Africa really wants economic prosperity, it should study and draw valuable lessons from the Marshall Plan’s dark twin: the Morgenthau Plan implemented in Germany in 1945. Reinert tells the story best: When it was clear that the Allies would win the Second World War, the question of what to do with Germany, which in three decades had precipitated two World Wars, reared its head. Henry Morgenthau Jr, the US secretary of the treasury, formulated a plan to keep Germany from ever again threatening world peace. Germany, he argued, had to be entirely deindustrialized and turned into an agricultural nation. All industrial equipment was to be destroyed, and the mines were to be flooded. This program was approved by the Allies and was immediately implemented when Germany capitulated in 1945. However, it soon became clear that the Morgenthau Plan was causing serious economic problems in Germany: deindustrialization caused agricultural productivity to plummet. This was indeed an interesting experiment. The mechanisms of synergy between industry and agriculture worked in reverse: killing the industry reduced the productivity of the agricultural sector.
51. It is clearly stated in the passage that the Marshall Plan _______ .
A) was redesigned as the Morgenthau Plan to be applied in Germany
B) was very comprehensive in its scope to develop Europe
C) was a program of investment from which the Allies expected to benefit directly
D) was ill-formed for its objectives according to Erik Reinert and Ha-Joon Chang
E) turned out to be a failed attempt to industrialize various European nations
52. According to the passage, Germany _______ .
A) had to be stripped of its power to start wars
B) was unable to continue its industrial development during World War II
C) needed industrial equipment and American finance to rebuild the country
D) found the Morgenthau Plan problematic as its economy declined
E) was allowed to industrialize despite its agricultural potential
53. It is implied in the passage that _______ .
A) America’s vision for post-war Europe was in essence misguided
B) a country has no choice but to prioritize one sector over another in order to advance
C) today’s Africa and post-war Germany have a lot in common
D) Erik Reinert and Ha-Joon Chang were right in their predictions about the Marshall Plan
E) plans made by policy makers may yield unexpected outcomes
54. The main concern of the author is to _______ .
A) supply a brief summary of imperial nations’ domination of others
B) blame America’s programs for Germany’s agricultural productivity
C) learn from the failings and achievements of some economic policies
D) describe ways of industrializing through agriculture in order to stop wars
E) accuse the African leaders of failing to understand how Germany prospered
55. – 58. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
Imagine an industry that runs out of raw materials. Companies go bankrupt, workers are laid off, families suffer and associated organizations are thrown into turmoil. Eventually, governments are forced to take drastic action. Welcome to global banking, recently brought to its knees by the interruption of its lifeblood – the flow of cash. In this case, we seem to have been fortunate. In the nick of time, governments released reserves in order to start cash circulating again. But what if the reserves had not been there? What are we going to do when our supplies of vital materials such as fish, tropical hardwoods, metals like indium and fresh water dry up? We live on a planet with finite resources– that is no surprise to anyone – so why do we have an economic system in which all that matters is growth – more growth means using more resources. When the human population was counted in millions and resources were sparse, people could simply move to new pastures. However, with 9 billion people expected around 2050, moving on is not an option. As politicians reconstruct the global economy, they should take heed. If we are to leave any kind of planet to our children, we need an economic system that lets us live within our means.
55. The author starts the passage with an example from industry in order to _______ .
A) explain why raw materials are used in industry
B) present the conditions of the workers who are currently employed
C) indicate the possible consequences of global industrialization
D) emphasize the importance of raw materials
E) describe the impact of the banking system on industry
56. According to the passage, the global banking crisis was resolved because governments _______ .
A) cooperated closely with the industry
B) sold off large supplies of cash
C) involved the necessary organizations
D) bought new supplies of vital materials
E) acted quickly to find a solution
57. The main point made in the passage is that _______ .
A) industries need to look carefully at the raw materials used
B) the economic system currently in place must be rethought
C) population explosion is one of the greatest threats to mankind as it requires more planning
D) all governments should have a responsibility to help out in times of crisis
E) the global banking system can throw the world into turmoil
58. It is pointed out in the passage that in the past _______ .
A) an economic system of growth was easy to establish
B) resources were more valuable than they are today
C) it was easy for people to find new resources
D) industry was far less dependent on raw materials
E) it was rare for businesses to actually fail
59. – 62. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
Many athletes credit drugs with improving their performance, but some of them may want to thank their brain instead. Mounting evidence suggests that the boost from human growth hormone (HGH), an increasingly popular doping drug, might be caused by the placebo effect. In a new double-blind trial funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency, in which neither researchers nor participants knew who was receiving HGH and who was taking a placebo, the researchers asked participants to guess whether or not they were on the real drug. Then they examined the results of the group who guessed that they were getting HGH when, in fact, they had received a placebo. That group improved at four fitness tests measuring strength, endurance, power and sprint capacity. The study participants who guessed correctly that they were taking a placebo did not improve, according to preliminary results presented at the Society for Endocrinology meeting in June 2011. “The finding really shows the power of the mind” said Ken Ho, an endocrinologist at the Garvan Institute in Sydney, Australia, who led the study. She maintains that many athletes are reaping the benefits of the placebo effect, without knowing whether what they are taking is beneficial or not.
59. It is clearly stated in the passage that the support given by certain drugs _______ .
A) is largely accepted for its positive contribution to performance
B) has been proven by many studies around the world
C) has led authorities to take the necessary measures against these drugs
D) has been openly disputed by most of the athletes
E) results in the improved performances of all the athletes who take them
60. According to the results of the study funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency, _______ .
A) the study participants were all aware they were given a placebo
B) those who knew that they were given real drugs failed to show improvement in fitness tests
C) the athletes who did not know they were given a placebo did well on fitness tests
D) the preliminary findings showed the increased popularity of drugs
E) the effects of HGH are incompatible with those found in other studies
61. It is understood from the passage that the placebo effect _______ .
A) is highly esteemed among those who are interested in athletics
B) can play a significant role in improving the performances of athletes
C) has been monitored in the participating groups that consist of people taking doping drugs
D) was also tested in other branches of sports where competition exists
E) was very high in the studies where participants were informed in advance
62. It can be inferred from the passage that _______ .
A) external interventions may have negative impacts on one’s performance
B) every athlete should be involved in a study to increase his or her performance
C) success lies in the power of one’s mind no matter which treatment he or she is exposed to
D) the World Anti-Doping Agency should be much more careful about the use of drugs in sports
E) much more research should be done on the placebo effect among athletes
63. – 67. Sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi bulunuz.
Emre: What’s so funny that you’ve been laughing now for hours?
Figen: I was just remembering a friend of mine who owns a shoe shop. He was very upset because he realized that many customers were trying to squeeze their feet into shoes that were too small, and were ruining his shoes.
Figen: Even so, I just can’t help laughing.
A) That must have been quite an experience for him. Now he won’t let anyone try on different sizes.
B) Doesn’t the salesman have any rights? He should be able to fill out some kind of complaint form.
C) Being a frequent shoe-buyer myself, I don’t know where your friend’s store is.
D) Perhaps he should start selling other things. This way, he won’t have to deal with those customers anymore.
E) I don’t find it amusing whatsoever. The customers should have been more careful with what they were doing.
Timur: Do you know the difference between the use of barbecues and conventional gas cooking?
Timur: What can be done to reduce this?
Levent: I think we should use gas over barbecue as it contributes to an increase in smog levels.
A) Burning charcoal releases carbon monoxide into the air much more than cooking with gas does.
B) Well, actually, both are good ways of cooking, but barbecues take longer to prepare.
C) Gas cooking is far more efficient than using a barbecue, as you can adjust the heat according to your needs.
D) Unfortunately, both are harmful and cause damage to the environment.
E) Gas appears to be more dangerous as there is a high risk of explosion.
Teacher: Your son has adapted quite well socially. He’s had no problems making friends. Also, he’s quite a leader among them.
Parent: I’m glad to hear that. What about his class work?
Parent: He’s never been very good at sitting still and focusing.
A) His math skills are very good, but he needs to work harder on his language skills.
B) He enjoys group work, probably because he likes to socialize so much.
C) I think he needs a private tutor to help him with the more difficult subjects.
D) I really enjoy having him in class because he’s such a good example to others.
E) He has the ability but he seems to lack the concentration to do the work.
Jale: Here is an article about how people react in emergencies. Researchers say that when more people are around, it reduces the chances of actually being helped.
Jale: Apparently, onlookers provide a model for action. If they are docile and disinterested, the situation may seem less serious.
Adnan: I think if there is only one bystander, your chance of being helped increases, as he will think he must help immediately.
A) Is an individual aware that others are present?
B) How did they carry out that research?
C) Do they offer any explanation as to why this happens?
D) Is this finding true for all cultures?
E) Who were the participants in this research?
Ayça: Do you think environmental factors like diet and stress affect the ageing process as much as the decline of hormonal systems?
Ayça: So, you mean physiological and environmental factors contribute to one’s longevity to the same degree.
Berkan: Definitely! I also think living in an extended family and playing an important role in society bring in some beneficial effects.
A) I don’t believe dietary habits and lifestyle have much to do with ageing. It’s all about the gradual failing of the body to be able to repair itself and replace cells.
B) I heard some people live longer and have fewer health problems than others thanks to their easy-going lifestyle and the amount of vegetables they consume.
C) Perhaps, calorie restriction and anti-ageing treatments can be successful interventions that may cause increases in life expectancy.
D) Even if ageing seems to be a serious problem for many people, some rely on plastic surgeries to cope with it.
E) Extending one’s lifespan isn’t simply a case of stopping the ageing process, because ageing isn’t a scientifically recognized cause of death.
68. – 71. Sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın cümleyi bulunuz.
68. Science does not produce a unified picture of the environment on which all can agree, instead it provides multiple views, each of which may be valid from a particular ideological angle.
A) There is not one single view of the environment that can be provided through science that everyone will agree on, rather it gives different perspectives, all of which are valid depending on the ideological perspective.
B) The environment has been described by scientists in many different ways rather than in just one way, and each of these have their own validity according to the observer’s own ideology.
C) Science represents many diverse and particular ideological angles, and from these a valid and unified description of the environment can be produced that respects multiple views.
D) Scientists from different ideological backgrounds have come together to agree upon a unified picture of the environment on which scientists can all agree upon its validity.
E) Multiple views on the environment are the result of science being unable to produce a unified description upon which those from different ideological backgrounds can agree.
69. The stocks of bluefin tuna, the most valuable fish in the world, have plummeted to such paltry levels that many scientists speculate that the fish could be headed for extinction.
A) Scientists believe that the excessive demand for the valuable bluefin tuna fish has risen to such a level that there is speculation about the fish becoming extinct.
B) Stocks of the world’s most desirable bluefin tuna fish have reached such a low level that many scientists are convinced that they are about to become extinct.
C) There is some speculation among scientists around the world as to how far the stocks of the valuable bluefin tuna fish can be allowed to fall before they become extinct.
D) Stocks of the bluefin tuna, the most expensive fish in the world, have dropped to such a low level that scientists are predicting that they might become extinct.
E) The most expensive fish in the world is the bluefin tuna, but scientists fear that stocks will soon reach a paltry level and the fish will become extinct.
70. Huntington’s has been described as the most disastrous disease known to man because of its peculiarly cruel characteristics, as it progressively strips a person of control of his muscles, reason and emotion.
A) Huntington’s disease is described as not only the worst disease in the world but also the most cruelly progressive, as it slowly takes away a person’s ability to control their muscles, reason and emotion.
B) To describe Huntington’s as a cruel disease could be disastrous as people know that it eventually takes away a person’s ability to control their muscles as well as to reason and feel emotion.
C) Due to its cruel characteristics that gradually take away a person’s control of their muscles, reason and emotion, Huntington’s is said to be the most devastating disease in the world.
D) When a person starts to rapidly lose control of his muscles and no longer is able to reason or control his emotions, he can be described as having the most disastrous disease ever – Huntington’s.
E) When a man is described as having Huntington’s, it can be a very cruel experience, as they will gradually experience certain characteristics such as lack of muscle control, reason and emotion.
71. The changing climate will have negative effects on all parts of the world; depending on people’s location and lifestyles, however, there will be great differences in the subsequent health hazards that human populations face.
A) No matter how and where people live, the subsequent health hazards will be terribly great after the varying climate negatively affects all regions of the world.
B) Based on their lifestyles and geographical location, human populations all over the world will experience health risks to be brought about by adverse effects of the changing climate.
C) Whether all regions of the world will be negatively affected by the incremental climate change largely depends on people’s location and ways of life, yet human populations will end up with health risks.
D) Since all parts of the world are likely to be adversely influenced by the globally changing climate, human populations have been subject to resultant health risks, regardless of how and where they reside.
E) All regions of the world will be adversely affected by the changing climate, but the resulting health risks to human populations will vary greatly, depending on where and how people live.
72. – 75. Sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek cümleyi bulunuz.
72. Most measurements of happiness are by standardized questionnaires or interview schedules. It could also be done by informed observers – those who know the individual well and see them regularly. _______ Yet, another form of measurement is to investigate a person’s memory and check whether they feel predominantly happy or unhappy about their past. Finally, there are some crude but ever-developing physical measures looking at everything from brain scanning to saliva levels.
A) It should be kept in mind that such tests might be misleading in many cases.
B) Findings suggest that ancestors of Finnish people made use of such methods.
C) There is also experience sampling, where people report how happy they are many times a day.
D) Being objective in this process is more important than being an observer.
E) A question still remains unanswered: to what extent can one express happiness on a sheet of questions?
73. Everything in the factories of the future will be run by smarter software. Digitization in manufacturing will have as widespread an effect as in other industries that have gone digital, including photography, publishing and films. Such effects will not be confined to large manufacturers, either. _______ Launching new and innovative products will become easier and cheaper for them.
A) The materials being used to make things are changing faster than they were in the past.
B) In addition, it will allow things to be made economically in much smaller quantities.
C) Nonetheless, companies are also optimistic about a manufacturing revival.
D) In fact, these developments will empower smaller firms and individual entrepreneurs.
E) As such, companies from all over the world use China and India as low-wage workshops.
74. _______ This is not the case, and evidence for early learning and remembering comes from several studies. In one, infants only a few hours old learned to turn their heads right or left, depending on whether they heard a buzzer or a tone. In order to taste a sweet liquid, the baby had to turn to the right when a tone sounded and to turn to the left when the buzzer sounded. In only a few trials, the babies were performing without error.
A) It was once thought that infants could neither learn nor remember.
B) Infants can discriminate differences in taste shortly after birth.
C) Newborn infants could distinguish human voices from other sounds.
D) Newborn babies may not remember what they have just learned.
E) Pre-birth experiences in the uterus help infants to learn and remember.
75. Stephen Hawking, the famed theoretical physicist diagnosed with Lou Gehrig’s disease, lost the ability to speak thirty years ago. In the meantime, a computerized voice generated by an infrared sensor inside Hawking’s mouth has allowed him to communicate. According to a recent report, however, the muscles controlling the device have been deteriorating, limiting him to as little as one word per minute. _______ This is a horrifying prospect for the scientific community that has benefitted greatly from his findings. But a new device recording brain functions at an unprecedented level of detail was developed and has been proposed to improve Hawking’s ability to communicate once again.
A) Such devices can be used to monitor the sleep pattern and the disorders of the deaf.
B) The sensor in the mouth is an effective way to continue communication with people unable to speak.
C) Without a new means of communication, Hawking runs the risk of being rendered mute.
D) The muscles in the mouth can be kept under control by using a great variety of equipments.
E) Thanks to recent developments, researchers are now able to keep the disease under control as in Hawking’s condition.
76. – 80. Sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan cümleyi bulunuz.
76. (I) Using herbs from your garden or the farmer’s market to enhance the flavour of your summer cuisine is really rewarding. (II) Not only will herbs add subtle accents to your main dishes and salads, but they will also bring fragrance and interest to favourite dessert and beverage recipes. (III) If you are not using fresh herbs, remember that dried herbs are very potent, so reduce the amount you use by half or more. (IV) Include your home-grown produce in a salad course, and specimens from your gorgeous summer flower beds in a welcoming table centrepiece. (V) Also, if you are cooking outdoors, be sure to allow enough time to heat the grill for your vegetables, steaks and chicken.
77. (I) Aristotle explored the apparent ties between odour and memory in his work On Sense and the Sensible. (II) Since then, people have speculated that the memories elicited by smell are more intimate and immediate than other recollections. (III) When we experience certain smells, we often find ourselves taken back in time to a specific event or scene. (IV) Many movies of the 1980s include scenes that trigger memories of childhood and school years. (V) For example, the smell of a salsa, a sauce eaten with Mexican food, may remind a person of watching James Bond movies on television with his or her father while dipping chips in the spicy sauce.
78. (I) Five to six million farmers in the tropics who cultivate the cacao trees from which cocoa is produced rely on the sales of the seeds to feed themselves and their families. (II) Cacao tree grows only in a narrow band within about 18 degrees north and south of the Equator. (III) They extract the seeds, often called ‘beans’, from football-shaped pods and then ferment and dry them to form butter and powder. (IV) The livelihoods of another 40 to 50 million depend on the long production road whereby the cacao seeds travel from a farm to the candy on store shelves. (V) In Ivory Coast, which produces 40 percent of the world’s cocoa, such farming accounts for a full 15 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employs 5 percent of households.
79. (I) One of the oldest methods of preserving food is drying. (II) It slows down the proliferation and activity of the bacteria that cause spoilage and decay, but it considerably alters the appearance of food due to the loss of water. (III) With the success of freezing and its characteristics for retaining the food value of ingredients, drying is no longer an essential means of preserving food for times when it may be out of season or expensive. (IV) Since prehistoric times, cereals and fruits have been dried in the sun before being stored. (V) The drying of fruits and vegetables has been widely practiced for so long; in Greece for grapes, in Turkey for apricots, and in Iran and Spain for tomatoes.
80. (I) No citizen of the European Union lives more than 700 km away from the coast. (II) The seas and oceans are at the centre of a large number of interactions, and to optimize political decision-making, we must clearly understand these interactions. (III) The European Union is surrounded by four seas and two oceans, and has 89,000 km of coastline. (IV) The maritime areas under the jurisdiction of the member states of the European Union are larger than the land masses. (V) The obvious conclusion is the need for rational management of the seas and oceans.
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