İNGİLİZCE YÖKDİL DENEME SINAVI
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İNGİLİZCE YÖKDİL DENEME SINAVI
1. – 16. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
1. About 60 million people had to leave Europe before World War II, which caused an _____ migration to the US.
2. The League of Nations, established in Geneva in 1920, included representatives from states throughout the world, but was severely weakened by the US decision not to become a member, and had no power to _____ its decisions.
3. By the start of the 1990s, popular music had become _____ globalized, with seventy per cent of all production resting in the hands of just five companies.
4. Throughout history, many _____ in engineering and science have come about as the result of the development of weapons.
5. The term “geography” _____ the English language in the 16th century from Latin and ultimately Greek, at the time when European navigators were beginning to explore Africa and the New World.
A) broke into
B) turned out
C) carried away
D) went on
E) came into
6. If this business goes on in such an awful way, it will _____ hundreds of unemployed.
A) do without
B) hang around with
C) end up with
D) go up against
E) make out for
7. When governments finally _____ measures to control the spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in March 2003, the infection _____more than 580 lives in 29 countries.
A) had taken / has already cost
B) had taken / were already costing
C) were taking / are already costing
D) took / had already cost
E) were taken / already cost
8. Free radicals _____ the by-products of certain metabolic functions like eating and breathing, and they _____ to accelerate the aging process.
A) are / are known
B) are being / know
C) were / knew
D) have been / are knowing
E) would be / had known
9. _____ a new 3.6 metre telescope, astronomers _____ more than 50 new exoplanets, which are defined as planets that orbit other stars.
A) Being used / discovered
B) To be used / would discover
C) Having used / discover
D) To use / had discovered
E) Using / have discovered
10. A gene giving humans a preference _____ sweet foods was recently identified _____ researchers.
A) over / among
B) on / with
C) to / at
D) for / by
E) into / within
11. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, 85, 000 baby teeth were collected _____ children in the Mid western US as part of a study of a possible link _____ the testing of atomic bombs and human health.
A) around / beside
B) with / from
C) inside / throughout
D) from / between
E) under / among
12. Painters _____ diverse _____ Goya, Manet, and Picasso were inspired by Titian and other Renaissance painters.
A) as / as
B) both / and
C) not only / but also
D) so / that
E) such / as
13. Global demand for coal will continue to expand over the next five years _____ governments’ attempts to reduce reliance on this fuel.
A) in spite of
B) as a result of
C) as well as
D) due to
E) in case of
14. _____ lead was widely known to be dangerous, by the early years of the 20th century, it could be found in all manners of consumer products.
C) Only when
D) Even though
E) Given that
15. It is impossible to make appropriate decisions about how to solve a problem _____ you define it and identify its root causes first.
A) in case
16. Cross-border shopping is a fundamental right under EU law and _____ as a form of tax evasion.
A) must not have been regarded
B) had not been regarded
C) should not be regarded
D) would not have been regarded
E) was not being regarded
17. – 21. Sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
It is believed that the subject of economics first (17)_____ in early Greek times. The reason (18)_____ this belief is that the first writings on this subject were by Plato and Aristotle. However, there is no data showing the economic system during these times.The first known economic system emerged in the Middle Ages (19)_____ feudalism was the dominant social system. There was an aristocratic class of (20)_____ who were the holders of vast lands in which the peasants or serfs worked (21)_____ the protection of their lords.
A) as soon as
B) prior to
A) in exchange for
B) in addition to
C) with regard to
D) in view of
E) in spite of
22. – 26. Sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
Investigating the relation between cell phones and cancer remains terribly difficult and (22)_____ Brain cancer studies are particularly hard to contuct (23)_____ the tumours are rare and can take decades to develop. Most studies have addressed either malignant tumours such as glioma or benign tumours such as meningioma or acoustic neuroma.The majority of the studies have found no link between cell phones and these types of cancer, but (24)_____ have. Researchers of a university hospital in Sweden found increased risk (25)_____ glioma and acoustic neuroma after ten or more years of regular cell phone use. They (26)_____ That current radiation limits for cellphones are unsafe.
B) a few
B) would have concluded
C) would conclude
D) should have concluded
E) had concluded
27. – 36. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
27. _____ where you can read a book or meet with friends.
A) Security at the new art museum is provided by young artists
B) In Paris’ new contemporary art space, the Palais deTokyo, there is a salon
C) The new contemporary museum is being built for theFrench collector François Pinault
D) None of the French contemporary artists enjoys international prominence
E) France never paid much attention to its own contemporary artists, beginning with the 19thcentury impressionists
28. _____what makes Hong Kong so exhilarating.
A) It‘s hard to explain
B) Many travellers are curious
C) One soon becomes aware
D) It has been debated
E) We have been much impressed
29. Because children enjoy the process of play, _____
A) various other options had been taken into consideration
B) they are not primarily focused on achieving a product or achieving a goal
C) group demands begin to grow steadily
D) many alternative approaches also had to be tested
E) the acquisition of social skills is a positive asset
30. Long before Linnaeus established his system for naming plants in the 18th century, _____
A) around the world, orchids have long been symbols of fertility and potency as in the Greek legend of Orchis
B) the common names of flowers should be highly evocative or imaginative
C) early attempts at growing orchids had consisted of placing plants in pots filled with a thick mixture of rotting wood and leaves
D) many Amazonian orchids are referred to locally as“monkey love-potions”
E) people throughout the world called plants by their own inventive names
31. _____, yet the “software programmes”, or genes, inside our bodies have not changed much in thousands of years.
A) Computer software has come down in price by half annually
B) There is a gene that tells fat cells to hold on to every calorie in order to protect the body during periods of starvation
C) Scientists are researching new methods to overcome the difficulties of gene therapy
D) A human gene is composed of two sets of 23 chromosomes
E) Our computers and other electronic devices typically have their software updated every few months
32. Biological psychology is interdisciplinary by nature _____
A) now that about half the people who have advanced degrees in psychology will work in colleges and universities
B) if our treatment of consciousness reflected both the biological and cognitive perspectives
C) since it seeks to establish relationships between pyschological processes and biological ones
D) just as biological researchers have often attempted to explain psychological principles in terms of biological ones
E) and so cognitive science and cultural psychology are further examples of this phenomenon
33. The vast majority of smoking-related cancer deaths are from lung cancer _____
A) although smoking may also be responsible for deaths from cancers of the lip, pharynx, pancreas, trachea and kidney
B) because the rate of smoking in the US has slowly declined since the mid-1960s, especially among men
C) but weight gain would have been quite modest for most people who had stopped smoking
D) if group counselling had been successful in helping people to quit smoking
E) even if many nonsmokers find the smoke of othersto be a nuisance and even irritating to their eyes and nose
34. Most researchers find the new method of generating human embryonic stem cells promising, _____
A) even if they held the possibility of regenerating body parts
B) as it might lead to new and possibly better stemcell lines
C) so that stem cells can become any other kind of cell
D) if this had led to healthier children
E) since this procedure was introduced more than a decade ago
35. Mozart, who was one of the leading representatives of the ―Classical‖ style in music, was only thirty-five _____
A) because the Church continued to provide support for music
B) as opera flourished in the eighteenth century
C) when he died of rheumatic fever
D) even though Bach was certainly the greatest composer of Baroque music
E) just as Rousseau composed music and wrote an opera
36. In his famous work NovumOrganum, Francis Bacon emphasized that natural science could not advance _____
A) so that this could mean gaining knowledge of nature through the senses
B) whether the knowledge of ancient authorities was the best guide to truth
C) if knowledge was best gained through cooperation among researchers
D) unless it cast off the inherited errors of the past
E) whereby he left a deep mark on the development of modern science
37. – 42. sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümleye anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi, Türkçe cümleye anlamca yakın İngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
37. While laptops are mostly used for personal activities, large computers are used by corporations and government agencies as central computers that can be simultaneously accessed by many users.
A) Dizüstü bilgisayarlar çoğunlukla kişisel uğraşlar için kullanılmasına rağmen, büyük bilgisayarlar gibi aynı anda birçok kullanıcı tarafından erişilen merkezî bilgisayarlar olarak şirketler ve resmî daireler tarafından da kullanılabilir.
B) Dizüstü bilgisayarlar çoğunlukla kişisel faaliyetler için kullanılırken, büyük bilgisayarlar, birçok kullanıcının eş zamanda ulaşabildiği merkezî bilgisayarlar olarak şirketler ve resmî daireler tarafından kullanılır.
C) Büyük bilgisayarlar genellikle şirketler ve resmî dairelerde birçok kişinin aynı anda ulaşabildiği merkezî bilgisayarlar olarak kullanılır, dizüstü bilgisayarlar ise daha çok kişisel faaliyetler için tercih edilmektedir.
D) Dizüstü bilgisayarlar kişisel kullanımlar için tasarlanmış olsa da şirketlerde ve resmî dairelerde birçok kullanıcının aynı anda erişebildiği merkezî bilgisayarlar olarak da çalışabilir.
E) Dizüstü bilgisayarları büyük bilgisayarlardan ayıran özellik, hem kişisel işler için hem de şirketler ve devlet daireleri tarafından aynı zamanda birçok kullanıcının erişebildiği merkezî bilgisayarlar olarak kullanılabilmeleridir.
38. UNICEF, working alongside national governments, manages matters pertaining to the health, education, and security of children all around the world.
A) UNICEF’in temel amacı; sağlık, eğitim ve güvenlik konularında dünyanın her tarafındaki çocuklarla ilgili sorunları ulusal hükûmetleri yanına alarak idare etmektir.
B) UNICEF’in kuruluş amacı; sağlık, eğitim ve güvenlik alanlarındaki çocuklarla ilgili konuları dünyanın her tarafındaki ulusal hükûmetlerle birlikte takip etmektir.
C) UNICEF; asıl olarak sağlık, eğitim ve güvenlik konularında dünyanın çeşitli bölgelerindeki çocuklarla ilgili sorunları ulusal hükûmetlerle beraber denetlemek amacıyla ortaya çıkmıştır.
D) UNICEF; çocukların sağlığı, eğitimi ve güvenliğiyle ilgili konuları ulusal hükûmetlerle dünyanın her bölgesinde birlikte yönetmek niyetiyle oluşturulmuştur.
E) UNICEF; dünyanın her tarafındaki çocukların sağlığı, eğitimi ve güvenliğiyle ilgili konuları ulusal hükûmetlerle birlikte çalışarak yönetir.
39. Civilization is the product of hundreds of generations working together achieving more than what any one person could achieve alone.
A) Medeniyet, insanların yüzlerce nesil boyunca tek başlarına bir şey başaramadıklarını anlamaları sonucu birlikte çalışmaya başlamalarıyla şekillenmiştir.
B) Medeniyet, yüzyıllar boyu nesillerin tek başlarına bir şey yapmak yerine hep birlikte çalışması sonucu ortaya çıkmıştır.
C) Medeniyet, yüzyıllar boyunca birlikte çalışmayı başaran insanların ürünlerinin bir sonucudur.
D) Medeniyet, herhangi birinin tek başına yapabileceğinden daha fazlasını başarmış yüzlerce neslin birlikte çalışmasının ürünüdür.
E) Medeniyet, insanların tek başlarına bir şeyler başarmak yerine birlikte çalışmalarının ürünü olarak yüzlerce yılda oluşmuştur.
40. Geçtiğimiz beş yılda yatırım bankacılığı rekor kârlarla altın bir çağ geçirmiştir.
A) In the past five years, record profits have led to a golden age in investment banking.
B) The past five years have been a golden age for investment banking with record profits.
C) In the past five years, record profits have made investment banking live through a golden age.
D) In the past five years, investment banking has lived through a golden age with record profits.
E) The past five years of investment banking have been a golden age of record profits.
41. Araştırmalar, insanların konuşma biçimini değiştirmenin, düşünme biçimini etkilediğini göstermiştir.
A) Studies have shown that changing the way people talk affects the way they think.
B) Studies show that a change in how people talk greatly affects how they think.
C) According to studies, talking about things can change the way people think.
D) Studies have shown that one can change how people think by changing how they talk.
E) What studies have shown is that changing people’s thoughts affects what they say.
42. İç mali piyasalar her nerede serbestleştirilirse, zayıf kredi kuruluşları bollaşır.
A) Weak credit institutions appear in certain places through which domestic financial markets are liberalized.
B) If domestic financial markets are liberalized, weak credit institutions abound around them.
C) Wherever domestic financial markets are liberalized, weak credit institutions abound.
D) Domestic financial markets are liberalized everywhere and weak credit institutions appear around them.
E) Weak credit institutions abound everywhere after domestic financial markets are liberalized.
43. – 46. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
Science, ever since the time of the Arabs, has had two functions: to enable us to know things, and to enable us to do things. The Greeks, with the exception of Archimedes, were only interested in the first of these. They had much curiosity about the world, however, since civilized people lived comfortably on slave labour, they had no interest in the “application” of such knowledge to improve lives. The Arabs, on the other hand, wished to discover the philosopher’s stone, the elixir of life, and how to turn base metals into gold. In the pursuit of these things, they discovered many facts about chemistry, but they did not arrive at any valid and important general laws, and “application” remained elementary. However, in the late Middle Ages, two discoveries were made which had profound importance. These were gunpowder and the mariner’s compass. It is not known who made these discoveries – the only thing certain is that it was not Roger Bacon, who was an English philosopher of the time.
43. It can be inferred from the passage that _____
A) the “applications” developed by the Greeks and Arabs helped establish today’s paradigms of knowledge
B) the Arabs’ research into chemistry included some unrealistic goals
C) the Arabians’ and Greeks’ contribution to science was almost equal to modern efforts
D) the Greeks’ involvement in science included finding the elixir of life and the philosopher’s stone
E) what the Arabs did in the name of science determined the parameters for the Greeks to follow
44. The reason why the Greeks were not concerned with the “application” of knowledge _____
A) is that they preferred to use slave labour so that they did not have to face the hardships of life
B) can be explained by the fact that they were the first to attempt to understand the nature of the world
C) is that the notion of developing “applications” did not occur to them at all
D) is that the areas they studied did not yield any “applications”
E) lies in the fact that they had no interest in making any new discoveries
45. According to the passage, Archimedes _____
A) was a follower of the scientific tradition developed by Arabs
B) is a rather insignificant figure in the world of Greeks
C) did as much as the rest of the Greek scientists to advance science
D) was not only interested in knowing things but also doing things
E) studied the world as he was curious as regards how it was formed
46. The discovery of gunpowder and the mariner’s compass in the Middle Ages _____
A) was immediately put to use by the Greeks
B) was made by a group of scientists headed by Roger Bacon
C) shows that the Arabs were primitive in their knowledge of chemistry
D) was made possible by the joint scientific efforts of the Arabs and Greeks
E) had a great influence on people’s lives
47. – 50. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
A study by a group of scientists has resulted in a major step forward in overcoming drug addiction. As addiction was known to cause molecular changes in the brains of addicts, causing their neurons to transmit much stronger signals of dopamine, a messenger molecule involved in reward-seeking behaviours, the scientists were hoping to prove experimentally that certain key proteins in the dopamine-producing neurons influence drug addiction. It was an inspired guess, as the study found that mice in which these key proteins had been selectively switched off displayed clear addictive behaviour. For instance, mice in which the CluR1 protein was switched off showed a much longer period of dependence. Conversely, re- administration of cocaine after a long break immediately re-ignited the addiction, but mice whose NR1 protein had been deactivated resisted relapsing into addictive behaviours. The ability of these proteins to determine addictive behavioural patterns makes them fascinating.
47. According to the passage, the NR1 protein in the mice involved in the experiment _____
A) helps to determine CluR1 protein levels
B) could not be deactivated completely
C) is found to have no relevance to addictive behaviours
D) causes a relapse into addiction when active
E) is currently the only substance used in the treatment of addiction
48. One can understand from the passage that drug addiction _____
A) diminishes the strength of neural signals of dopamine
B) switches off reward-seeking behaviours
C) affects the molecular structure of the brain
D) exterminates dopamine-producing neurons
E) causes a selective deactivation of proteins
49. As can be understood from the passage, the discovery _____
A) could offer new ways of treating addictive behaviours in humans
B) showed that addictive behavioural patterns are too complex to be classified
C) proved the importance of refraining from long breaks between cocaine doses
D) revealed that mice and human addictive behavioural patterns were completely different
E) may, in the future, be used to re-ignite substance addiction
50. It is clear from the passage that the CluR1 protein _____
A) excites new addictive behavioural patterns that previously did not exist
B) is the by-product of molecular changes in the brain
C) requires the re-administration of cocaine
D) immediately re-ignites the addiction when switched on
E) can increase resistance to addiction when active
51. – 54. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
Satellite images of the upper Amazon Basin in Brazil taken since 1999 have revealed hundreds of circles, squares, and other geometric shapes once hidden by the Amazon rain forests. They hint at a previously unknown ancient society that flourished in the Amazon. Now researchers estimate that nearly ten times as many such structures, of unknown purpose, may exist undetected under the Amazon forest cover. The discovery adds to evidence that the hinterlands of the Amazon once teemed with complex societies, which were largely wiped out by diseases brought to South America by European colonists in the 15 and 16th centuries.
Since these vanished societies had gone unrecorded, earlier research had suggested that soils in the upper Amazon were too poor to support the extensive agriculture needed for such large, permanent settlements. The researchers say “We found that this view is wrong, and there is a lot more to discover in these places”.
51. According to the passage, the new discovery _____
A) has strengthened the already known facts about the upper Amazon Basin
B) is too poor to become an evidence for the ancient Amazon society
C) has proved that the satellite pictures were misleading
D) has falsified the previous assumptions about the land
E) indicates the fact that the upper Amazon Basin was made of geometric shapes
52. From the passage, we can infer that _____
A) pictures taken by satellites can provide scientists with valuable new data
B) there is no longer any reason to further investigate the upper Amazon Basin
C) the ancient Amazon people lived in extreme isolation from the outer world
D) researchers can learn a lot from the written historical data relating to the region
E) the geometric shapes should not be taken too seriously
53. It is clearly understood from the passage that the ancient Amazon people _____
A) killed large numbers of would-be colonists
B) had no resistance to new diseases
C) hid themselves in the Amazon rain forest
D) led a very simple life and lived as separate tribes
E) are the ancestors of the present-day inhabitants of the region
54. As can be understood from the passage, the researchers now tend to think that _____
A) they have revealed almost everything about the region
B) the natives had no idea about agriculture
C) the colonists helped the natives become civilized
D) the geometric shapes reveal something about the new industrial areas
E) the land might have once been inhabited densely
55. – 58. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
When air pollution, including acid rain, is combined with other environmental stresses, such as low winter temperatures, prolonged droughts, insects, and bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases, it can cause plants to decline and die. More than half of the red spruce trees in the mountains of the northern United States have died since the mid- 1970s. Other tree species, such as sugar maples, for example, are also dying. Many still-living trees are exhibiting symptoms of forest decline, characterized by a gradual deterioration and often eventual death. The general symptoms of forest decline are reduced vigour and growth, but some plants exhibit specific symptoms, such as yellowing of needles in conifers. Air pollutants may or may not be the primary stress that results in forest decline, but the presence of air pollution lowers plant resistance to other stress factors. When one or more stresses weaken a tree, then an additional stress may be enough to cause death.
55. It is suggested in the passage that air pollutants _____
A) become very destructive for all kinds of trees when they turn into acid rain
B) have been the primary cause of the deterioration of various tree species
C) can cause forest decline when they act together with other environmental stresses
D) show their adverse effect on trees most clearly when there are prolonged droughts
E) are particularly effective on sugar maples and conifers but not other species
56. According to the passage, when the trees in a forest fail to grow properly, _____
A) this is directly related to low winter temperatures
B) this is mostly the result of a fungal disease
C) its immediate effect can be detected right away
D) this can be a symptom of forest decline
E) it is inevitable that bacterial diseases will emerge soon
57. It is implied in the passage that the death of the red spruce in the northeastern United States _____
A) is a clear indication of how forest decline can turn into a major disaster
B) has been caused primarily by bacterial and viral diseases in the region
C) was also noticed in the mid-1970s when the trees showed a great deal of reduced vigour
D) was preceded first by reduced growth and then a long period of deterioration
E) has resulted from the joint effects of air pollution and environmental factors
58. It is emphasized in the passage that air pollution _____
A) weakens the resistance of plants against environmental stresses
B) in the northeastern United States has declined substantially over the years
C) causes the spread of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases in the world
D) plays a major role in the fall of winter temperatures
E) prevents the detection of symptoms related to forest decline.
59. – 62. Soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.
A 37,000-year-old baby mammoth could help to explain why the ancient species became extinct as well as giving an insight into climate change. Researchers at a Japanese medical school carried out a computed tomography (CT) scan of the mammoth, which was found frozen in Northern Siberia. They produced some high- resolution 3D pictures which are being analyzed to find out about the animal’s internal organs and diet, and to work out how she died. The mammoth’s tissues and skeleton have been studied at a zoological museum in Russia. Air samples from her lungs will also be analyzed for clues to the Earth’s atmosphere at the time of her death. The mammoth, named Lyuba, was found by a reindeer herder buried in permafrost. She is unusual because of the proportion of her body that is preserved. According to one expert working on Lyuba, with fossils, scientists generally get only bones and teeth, but this specimen is special in that there are also the organs and muscles. The same expert notes that it will be interesting to see how this animal managed to adapt to life high in the Arctic and was able to survive, especially in the Ice Age.
59. It is clear from the passage that the mammoth Lyuba is considered extraordinary because _____
A) it had remained buried in permafrost
B) a great part of its body was conserved
C) it was found by a reindeer herder
D) its body was unusually disproportionate
E) it was a rather muscular animal
60. It can be inferred from the text that _____
A) Lyuba was a special animal with unusual features
B) there were many animals left in the high Arctic by the Ice Age
C) reindeer were the dominant species in Siberia some 37,000 years ago
D) scientists have adequate information as to why mammoths disappeared
E) most fossils do not provide pre-historic air samples
61. According to the passage, the organs and muscles of the baby mammoth _____
A) make the animal inapt for a CT scan
B) will give scientists an insight into the survival and adaptation skills of the mammoths
C) were found to be different from those of the other members of the same species
D) did not provide any new insight about the species
E) were found to be similar to those of the reindeer that lived in the same area
62. It is clear from the passage that the CT scan of the mammoth _____
A) did not yield the expected result, as the animal had remained in permafrost for too long
B) was carried out in northern Siberia
C) provided extensive information on the Earth’s atmosphere at the time of her death
D) is sure to offer scientists insight into climate change
E) is expected to give scientists an idea about the eating habits of the animal
63. – 67. Sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi bulunuz.
Helen: I think forensics programmes on TV are giving a distorted view of what forensic science can or cannot do.
Helen: But they do. Some attorneys think that these forensics programmes can affect the jurors‘ demands and decisions.
A) I think most people are responsible enough not to be affected.
B) You do? In what way?
C) Do you actually watch those programmes?
D) Oh, come on. People don‘t take those programmes seriously!
E) What‘s on TV this evening?
John:Have you seen the recent report released by the American Rivers Administration?
Allen: No, not yet. What‘s your opinion?
Allen: So it becomes increasingly urgent for the authorities to put into effect far more efficient measures to improve their condition. Don‘t you think?
A) I am sure you know that the American Rivers Administration analyzes and studies the condition of the major rivers in the country.
B) Most comprehensively prepared. It is very upsetting to know how endangered most of the nation‘s rivers are.
C) Indeed, as you have just suggested, dams and canals can be harmful to fish and wildlife populations
D) As I recall from previous reports, coal mining operations fill streams with coal and dirt.
E) It has always been admitted that the use of rivers as a water supply for domestic and industrial needs causes much depletion.
Jane: I don‘t think we should go to Venice for our holiday this year.
Steve: Have you been reading that disturbing article on how Venice is sinking?
Steve: I know. It‘s also in danger because sea levels are rising.
A) No. Should I?
B) Yes, I have. And it‘s not simply that Venice is sinking.
C) Yes. But I think it grossly over-emphasizes the danger, don‘t you?
D) Oh, people have been talking about that for years, but it won‘t happen, will it?
E) Surely they could do something to save the city!
Lucy: Is it true that China is slightly larger in area than the US?
Kate: That‘s what I‘ve read in a booklet on China.
Kate: A varied topography indeed! Besides, the Yangtze River is the third-longest river in the world.
A) The principal mountain ranges are the Tien Shan, the Kunlun chain, and the Trans- Himalaya.
B) Moreover, from the map one can see that the greater part of the country is mountainous, and the Gobi Desert lies in the North.
C) I understand it has three great river systems: theYellow River, the Yangtze River, and the Pearl River.
D) The earliest recorded human settlements have been discovered in the Huang Ho basin.
E) As you know, in the southwest is Tibet, which China annexed in 1950.
Mary: Have you heard the news that Colombia’s cocaine production has been reduced by one third to one-half?
Roy: No. How did they manage to do that?
Mary: The Colombian government used airplanes to spray weed-killer on areas they suspected were being used to grow coca plants.
A) Wow, that should reduce the amount of cocaine available on the Market, and raise the price as well.
B) Who is the president of Colombia?
C) Would you like to visit Colombia?
D) Did you know that Colombia has a large wildlife refuge that has many species of animals and plants not found anywhere else on earth?
E) They are still having trouble with guerrilla forces and land mines in Colombia, according to this article.
68. – 71. Sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın cümleyi bulunuz.
68. Many people prefer to eat organic food, that is, food unpolluted by chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
A) A growing number of people are interested in organic food, since it is produced free of chemicals and pesticides.
B) Organic food is thought to be healthier as no chemical fertilizers or pesticides are used in its production.
C) Obviously, organic food is preferable since it is free of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
D) The preference for organic food has led to a reduction in the use of chemical fertilizers andpesticides.
E) Organic food, food produced without the aid of chemical fertilizers or pesticides, has many adherents.
69. Actually, I try to keep out of her way because, whenever I do run into her, she pesters me for a loan.
A) Whatever you do, don‘t ever give her a loan or you‘ll find yourself forced to lend her Money every time she asks for it.
B) Even so, it‘s best to keep out of her way, if you can, as she takes every available opportunity to get money out of you.
C) As a matter of fact, I avoid her as much as possible since, if we ever do happen to meet, she‘s sure to work on me to lend her money.
D) Even so, I prefer not to risk a meeting with her as I know she will do her best to make me lend her the money.
E) I‘d rather not put myself in a position to be forced to lend her money again.
70. Get your brother to fix the roof; he‘s quite the best person to do it.
A) Try to persuade your brother to fix the roof: he‘s good at such things.
B) As he‘s good at things like that, why don‘t you get your brother to fix the roof?
C) Your brother would mend the roof better than any one else; tell him to do it.
D) Why don‘t you get your brother to fix the roof? I‘m sure he would.
E) Since your brother is good at roof-fixing, ask him to do it.
71. Leonardo da Vinci forged close friendships with a wide variety of people, from humble apprentices to the king of France.
A) Leonardo da Vinci had some close friends, who mainly included apprentices and also the king of France
B) Among the few people Leonardo da Vinci regarded as his friends were some poor apprentices as well as the king of France.
C) Leonardo da Vinci was very fond of his friends, who in fact consisted of the French king and some poor apprentices.
D) Leonardo da Vinci had a wide range of close friends, including poor apprentices and also the king of France.
E) The king of France and a number of apprentices were the only people who made friends with Leonardo da Vinci.
72. – 75. Sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek cümleyi bulunuz.
72. Many professions, such as law, rely almost exclusively on the written and oral word. Although engineers also must write and speak well, this alone is insufficient to convey complex engineering information. For this, graphical or visual communication is required. _____. In addition, it can provide readers with insight they can obtain through no other means.
A) On the contrary, tables are useful for presenting technical information.
B) As a matter of fact, graphs are prepared from tabulated data.
C) A well-prepared graph can accurately communicate a great deal of information in just a few seconds.
D) However, a wide variety of graphs are available to help visualize data.
E) Nevertheless, graphs should have a descriptive title.
73. At the beginning of the 1990s, it seemed to all appearances that the US comprehensively dominated global affairs._____Thus, it was described as ―the lonely superpower. However, that said, the 1990s proved to be a decade of uncertainty and questioning for many Americans. In broad terms, the challenges of the post-Cold War era were as demanding for the US as they were for other countries.
A) In many respects, the ending of the Cold War was expected to usher in a period of profound uncertainty.
B) The debates about US foreign policy in the post- Cold War period have been shaped by the impact of world events.
C) One of the most frequently used images of US foreign-policy making has been that of contest and struggle.
D) Indeed, the US has always found it difficult to reconcile the issue of world order with national perspectives.
E) It occupied a pre-eminent position in terms of military power, technology and global economic reach.
74. Norwegians, like the Danes and Swedes, are of Teutonic origin. The Norsemen, also known as Vikings, ravaged the coasts of northwest Europe from the 8th to the 11th century and were ruled by local chieftains. _____ After 1442, the country was ruled by Danish kings until 1814, when it was united with Sweden in an uneasy partnership.
A) Despite severe losses in the World War II, it recovered quickly as its economy expanded
B) Norway became the second largest net oil exporter after Saudi Arabia in 1995
C) When the World War I broke out, Norway joined with Sweden and Denmark in a decision to cooperate in the joint interest of the three countries
D) Olaf II Haraldsson became the first effective king of all Norway in 1015 and began converting the Norwegians to Christianity
E) In the late 20th century, the Labor Party and the Conservative Party seesawed for control, each sometimes having to lead minority governments
75. Many emergencies begin ambiguously, and it is difficult to understand the difference between, for example, a man who is drunk and one who is ill._____. What you are likely to see, of course, are other people who, for the same reasons, are also acting as if nothing is wrong.
A) One common way to deal with such dilemmas is to postpone action, to act as if nothing is wrong, and to look around to see how others are reacting
B) We have all heard about crowds panicking because each person leads everybody else to overreact
C) It was also difficult to tell whether a woman was being threatened by a stranger or arguing with her husband
D) Despite this fact, we cannot tell at first glance whether what we see is smoke from a fire or just steam pouring out of the window
E) We would have been embarrassed if we had reacted as if the situation were an emergency when it actually was not
76. – 80. Sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan cümleyi bulunuz.
76. (I) Science is systematic because of the attention it gives to organizing knowledge and making it readily accessible to all who wish to build on its foundation. (II) If the results support the hypothesis, the scientist may use them to generate related hypotheses. (III) In this way science is both a personal and a social endeavour. (IV) In other words, it is beneficial both to the individual and to society at large. (V) Moreover, science contributes a great deal to the improvement and the quality of human life.
77. (I) The history of the German occupation of France is dirty, tragic, and sometimes darkly comic. (II) It is also one of the most intensely researched subjects of the past decades. (III) In May of 1940, the Germans attacked France, and in June they entered Paris. (IV) More than 8, 000 books and articles have been devoted to this subject. (V) However, Julian Jackson‘s recent book, France: The Dark Years, 1940- 1944, is an exceptional contribution to the already-accumulated knowledge of the occupation.
78. (I) Labour unions arose in the late 1800s and early 1900s largely in response to the awful working conditions in factories. (II) Unions try to increase the wages of their members in three ways. (III) In garment factories, iron plants and textile mills, labourers worked about 14 hours per day, seven days a week. (IV) The long workweek was not new to those who had worked on farms, but the working conditions were. (V) Men, women and children as young as 5 operated clattering machinery so dangerous that many workers lost their sight, hearing and limbs.
79. (I) In November 1859, British biologist Charles R.Darwin published one of the most important and controversial books ever written. (II) Entitled On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, Darwin’s book was an immediate bestseller.(III) Darwin’s second point was to propose a mechanism for evolution. (IV) This book soon made his name almost synonymous with the concept of evolution. (V) For this reason, Darwin stands out in history with people like Newton and Einstein, scientists who synthesized ideas with great explanatory power.
80. (I) The algal ancestors of plants may have carpeted moist fringes of lakes or coastal salt marshes over 500 million years ago. (II) Both groups have similar microscopic structures for making their cellulose cell walls and a similar mechanism for forming the cell plate that divides the cytoplasm during cell division.(III) These shallow-water habitats were subject to occasional drying, and natural selection would have favoured algae that could survive periodic droughts.(IV) Some species accumulated adaptations that enabled them to live permanently above the water line. (V) The modern-day green alga Coleochaete may resemble an early plant ancestor, and it grows at the edges of lakes as disk-like, multicellular colonies.
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